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Time019

Elm 0.19 moved the Date module to a separate package elm-time and renamed it Time. So, this is an implementation for Elm 0.17.

Time

type Posix = Posix Int

A computer representation of time. It is the same all over Earth, so if we have a phone call or meeting at a certain POSIX time, there is no ambiguity. It is very hard for humans to read a POSIX time though, so we use functions like toHour and toMinute to view them.

now : Task x Posix

Get the POSIX time at the moment when this task is run.

every : Float -> (Posix -> msg) -> Sub msg

Get the current time periodically. How often though? Well, you provide an interval in milliseconds (like 1000 for a second or 60 * 1000 for a minute or 60 * 60 * 1000 for an hour) and that is how often you get a new time!

Check out this example to see how to use it in an application.

This function is not for animation. Use the elm/animation-frame package for that sort of thing! It syncs up with repaints and will end up being much smoother for any moving visuals.

posixToMillis : Posix -> Int

Turn a Posix time into the number of milliseconds since 1970 January 1 at 00:00:00 UTC. It was a Thursday.

millisToPosix : Int -> Posix

Turn milliseconds into a Posix time.

Time Zones

type Zone = Zone Int (List Era)

Information about a particular time zone.

The IANA Time Zone Database tracks things like UTC offsets and daylight-saving rules so that you can turn a Posix time into local times within a time zone.

See utc, here, and Browser.Env to learn how to obtain Zone values.

utc : Zone

The time zone for Coordinated Universal Time ([UTC])

The utc zone has no time adjustments. It never observes daylight-saving time and it never shifts around based on political restructuring. [UTC]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time

here : Task x Zone

Produce a Zone based on the current UTC offset.

You can use this to figure out what day it is where you are:

import Task exposing (Task)

whatDayIsIt : Task x Int
whatDayIsIt =
    Task.map2 Time.toDay Time.here Time.now

Accuracy Note: This function can only give time zones like Etc/GMT+9 or Etc/GMT-6. It cannot give you Europe/Stockholm, Asia/Tokyo, or any other normal time zone from the [full list][tz] due to limitations in JavaScript. For example, if you run here in New York City, the resulting Zone will never be America/New_York. Instead you get Etc/GMT-5 or Etc/GMT-4 depending on Daylight Saving Time. So even though browsers must have internal access to America/New_York to figure out that offset, there is no public API to get the full information. This means the Zone you get from this function will act weird if (1) an application stays open across a Daylight Saving Time boundary or (2) you try to use it on historical data.

Future Note: We can improve here when there is good browser support for JavaScript functions that (1) expose the IANA time zone database and (2) let you ask the time zone of the computer. The committee that reviews additions to JavaScript is called TC39, and I encourage you to push for these capabilities! I cannot do it myself unfortunately.

Alternatives: See the customZone docs to learn how to implement stopgaps. [tz]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tz_database_time_zones

Human Times

toYear : Zone -> Posix -> Int

What year is it?!

toYear utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 1970

toYear nyc (millisToPosix 0) == 1969
-- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.
toMonth : Zone -> Posix -> Month

What month is it?!

import Date exposing (Month(..))

toMonth utc (millisToPosix 0) --> Jan

toMonth nyc (millisToPosix 0) == Dec
-- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.
toDay : Zone -> Posix -> Int

What day is it?! (Days go from 1 to 31)

toDay utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 1

toDay nyc (millisToPosix 0) == 31
-- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.
toWeekday : Zone -> Posix -> Weekday

What day of the week is it?

toWeekday utc (millisToPosix 0) == Thu

toWeekday nyc (millisToPosix 0) == Wed
-- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.
toHour : Zone -> Posix -> Int

What hour is it? (From 0 to 23)

toHour utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 0 -- 12am

toHour nyc (millisToPosix 0) == 19 -- 7pm
-- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.
toMinute : Zone -> Posix -> Int

What minute is it? (From 0 to 59)

toMinute utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 0

This can be different in different time zones. Some time zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes!

toSecond : Zone -> Posix -> Int

What second is it?

toSecond utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 0

toSecond utc (millisToPosix 1234) --> 1

toSecond utc (millisToPosix 5678) --> 5
toMillis : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toMillis utc (millisToPosix    0) --> 0

toMillis utc (millisToPosix 1234) --> 234

toMillis utc (millisToPosix 5678) --> 678

Weeks and Months

type alias Weekday = Date.Day

Represents a Weekday so that you can convert it to a String or Int however you please. For example, if you need the Japanese representation, you can say:

toJapaneseWeekday : Weekday -> String
toJapaneseWeekday weekday =
    case weekday of
        Mon ->
            "月"

        Tue ->
            "火"

        Wed ->
            "水"

        Thu ->
            "木"

        Fri ->
            "金"

        Sat ->
            "土"

        Sun ->
            "日"
type alias Month = Date.Month

Represents a Month so that you can convert it to a String or Int however you please. For example, if you need the Danish representation, you can say:

toDanishMonth : Month -> String
toDanishMonth month =
    case month of
        Jan ->
            "januar"

        Feb ->
            "februar"

        Mar ->
            "marts"

        Apr ->
            "april"

        May ->
            "maj"

        Jun ->
            "juni"

        Jul ->
            "juli"

        Aug ->
            "august"

        Sep ->
            "september"

        Oct ->
            "oktober"

        Nov ->
            "november"

        Dec ->
            "december"

For Package Authors

customZone : Int -> List { start : Int, offset : Int } -> Zone

Intended for package authors.

The documentation of here explains that it has certain accuracy limitations that block on adding new APIs to JavaScript. The customZone function is a stopgap that takes:

  1. A default offset in minutes. So Etc/GMT-5 is customZone (-5 * 60) [] and Etc/GMT+9 is customZone (9 * 60) [].
  2. A list of exceptions containing their start time in "minutes since the Unix epoch" and their offset in "minutes from UTC"

Human times will be based on the nearest start, falling back on the default offset if the time is older than all of the exceptions.

When paired with getZoneName, this allows you to load the real IANA time zone database however you want: HTTP, cache, hardcode, etc.

Note: If you use this, please share your work in an Elm community forum! I am sure others would like to hear about it, and more experience reports will help me and the any potential TC39 proposal.

getZoneName : Task x ZoneName

Intended for package authors.

Use Intl.DateTimeFormat().resolvedOptions().timeZone to try to get names like Europe/Moscow or America/Havana. From there you can look it up in any IANA data you loaded yourself.

type ZoneName = Name String | Offset Int

Intended for package authors.

The getZoneName function relies on a JavaScript API that is not supported in all browsers yet, so it can return the following:

-- in more recent browsers
Name "Europe/Moscow"
Name "America/Havana"

-- in older browsers
Offset 180
Offset -300

So if the real info is not available, it will tell you the current UTC offset in minutes, just like what here uses to make zones like customZone -60 [].

module Time019
    exposing
        ( Month
        , Posix
        , Weekday
        , Zone
        , ZoneName(..)
        , customZone
        , every
        , getZoneName
        , here
        , millisToPosix
        , now
        , posixToMillis
        , toDay
        , toHour
        , toMillis
        , toMinute
        , toMonth
        , toSecond
        , toWeekday
        , toYear
        , utc
        )

{-| Elm 0.19 moved the `Date` module to a separate package
[elm-time](https://package.elm-lang.org/packages/elm/time/1.0.0/)
and renamed it `Time`. So, this is an implementation for Elm 0.17.


# Time

@docs Posix, now, every, posixToMillis, millisToPosix


# Time Zones

@docs Zone, utc, here


# Human Times

@docs toYear, toMonth, toDay, toWeekday, toHour, toMinute, toSecond, toMillis


# Weeks and Months

@docs Weekday, Month


# For Package Authors

@docs customZone, getZoneName, ZoneName

-}

import Basics019 exposing (modBy)
import Date exposing (Day(..), Month(..))
import Date.Extra exposing (offsetFromUtc)
import Task exposing (Task)
import Time


-- POSIX


{-| A computer representation of time. It is the same all over Earth, so if we
have a phone call or meeting at a certain POSIX time, there is no ambiguity.
It is very hard for humans to _read_ a POSIX time though, so we use functions
like [`toHour`](#toHour) and [`toMinute`](#toMinute) to `view` them.
-}
type Posix
    = Posix Int


{-| Get the POSIX time at the moment when this task is run.
-}
now : Task x Posix
now =
    Task.map (Date.toTime >> round >> millisToPosix) Date.now


{-| Turn a `Posix` time into the number of milliseconds since 1970 January 1
at 00:00:00 UTC. It was a Thursday.
-}
posixToMillis : Posix -> Int
posixToMillis (Posix millis) =
    millis


{-| Turn milliseconds into a `Posix` time.
-}
millisToPosix : Int -> Posix
millisToPosix =
    Posix



-- TIME ZONES


{-| Information about a particular time zone.

The [IANA Time Zone Database][iana] tracks things like UTC offsets and
daylight-saving rules so that you can turn a `Posix` time into local times
within a time zone.

See [`utc`](#utc), [`here`](#here), and [`Browser.Env`][env] to learn how to
obtain `Zone` values.

[iana]: https://www.iana.org/time-zones
[env]: /packages/elm/browser/latest/Browser#Env

-}
type Zone
    = Zone Int (List Era)


{-| Currently the public API only needs:

  - `start` is the beginning of this `Era` in "minutes since the Unix Epoch"
  - `offset` is the UTC offset of this `Era` in minutes
    But eventually, it will make sense to have `abbr : String` for `PST` vs `PDT`

-}
type alias Era =
    { start : Int
    , offset : Int
    }


{-| The time zone for Coordinated Universal Time ([UTC])

The `utc` zone has no time adjustments. It never observes daylight-saving
time and it never shifts around based on political restructuring.
[UTC]: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinated_Universal_Time>

-}
utc : Zone
utc =
    Zone 0 []


{-| Produce a `Zone` based on the current UTC offset.

You can use this to figure out what day it is where you are:

    import Task exposing (Task)

    whatDayIsIt : Task x Int
    whatDayIsIt =
        Task.map2 Time.toDay Time.here Time.now

**Accuracy Note:** This function can only give time zones like `Etc/GMT+9` or
`Etc/GMT-6`. It cannot give you `Europe/Stockholm`, `Asia/Tokyo`, or any other
normal time zone from the [full list][tz] due to limitations in JavaScript.
For example, if you run `here` in New York City, the resulting `Zone` will
never be `America/New_York`. Instead you get `Etc/GMT-5` or `Etc/GMT-4`
depending on Daylight Saving Time. So even though browsers must have internal
access to `America/New_York` to figure out that offset, there is no public API
to get the full information. This means the `Zone` you get from this function
will act weird if (1) an application stays open across a Daylight Saving Time
boundary or (2) you try to use it on historical data.

**Future Note:** We can improve `here` when there is good browser support for
JavaScript functions that (1) expose the IANA time zone database and (2) let
you ask the time zone of the computer. The committee that reviews additions to
JavaScript is called TC39, and I encourage you to push for these capabilities! I
cannot do it myself unfortunately.

**Alternatives:** See the `customZone` docs to learn how to implement stopgaps.
[tz]: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tz_database_time_zones>

-}
here : Task x Zone
here =
    Task.map (offsetFromUtc >> flip customZone []) Date.now



-- DATES


{-| What year is it?!

    toYear utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 1970

    toYear nyc (millisToPosix 0) == 1969
    -- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.

-}
toYear : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toYear zone time =
    (toCivil (toAdjustedMinutes zone time)).year


{-| What month is it?!

    import Date exposing (Month(..))

    toMonth utc (millisToPosix 0) --> Jan

    toMonth nyc (millisToPosix 0) == Dec
    -- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.

-}
toMonth : Zone -> Posix -> Month
toMonth zone time =
    case (toCivil (toAdjustedMinutes zone time)).month of
        1 ->
            Jan

        2 ->
            Feb

        3 ->
            Mar

        4 ->
            Apr

        5 ->
            May

        6 ->
            Jun

        7 ->
            Jul

        8 ->
            Aug

        9 ->
            Sep

        10 ->
            Oct

        11 ->
            Nov

        _ ->
            Dec


{-| What day is it?! (Days go from 1 to 31)

    toDay utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 1

    toDay nyc (millisToPosix 0) == 31
    -- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.

-}
toDay : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toDay zone time =
    (toCivil (toAdjustedMinutes zone time)).day


{-| What day of the week is it?

    toWeekday utc (millisToPosix 0) == Thu

    toWeekday nyc (millisToPosix 0) == Wed
    -- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.

-}
toWeekday : Zone -> Posix -> Weekday
toWeekday zone time =
    case modBy 7 (flooredDiv (toAdjustedMinutes zone time) (60 * 24)) of
        0 ->
            Thu

        1 ->
            Fri

        2 ->
            Sat

        3 ->
            Sun

        4 ->
            Mon

        5 ->
            Tue

        _ ->
            Wed


{-| What hour is it? (From 0 to 23)

    toHour utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 0 -- 12am

    toHour nyc (millisToPosix 0) == 19 -- 7pm
    -- pretend `nyc` is the `Zone` for America/New_York.

-}
toHour : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toHour zone time =
    modBy 24 (flooredDiv (toAdjustedMinutes zone time) 60)


{-| What minute is it? (From 0 to 59)

    toMinute utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 0

This can be different in different time zones. Some time zones are offset
by 30 or 45 minutes!

-}
toMinute : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toMinute zone time =
    modBy 60 (toAdjustedMinutes zone time)


{-| What second is it?

    toSecond utc (millisToPosix 0) --> 0

    toSecond utc (millisToPosix 1234) --> 1

    toSecond utc (millisToPosix 5678) --> 5

-}
toSecond : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toSecond _ time =
    modBy 60 (flooredDiv (posixToMillis time) 1000)


{-|

    toMillis utc (millisToPosix    0) --> 0

    toMillis utc (millisToPosix 1234) --> 234

    toMillis utc (millisToPosix 5678) --> 678

-}
toMillis : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toMillis _ time =
    modBy 1000 (posixToMillis time)



-- DATE HELPERS


toAdjustedMinutes : Zone -> Posix -> Int
toAdjustedMinutes (Zone defaultOffset eras) time =
    toAdjustedMinutesHelp defaultOffset (flooredDiv (posixToMillis time) 60000) eras


toAdjustedMinutesHelp : Int -> Int -> List Era -> Int
toAdjustedMinutesHelp defaultOffset posixMinutes eras =
    case eras of
        [] ->
            posixMinutes + defaultOffset

        era :: olderEras ->
            if era.start < posixMinutes then
                posixMinutes + era.offset
            else
                toAdjustedMinutesHelp defaultOffset posixMinutes olderEras


toCivil : Int -> { year : Int, month : Int, day : Int }
toCivil minutes =
    let
        rawDay =
            flooredDiv minutes (60 * 24) + 719468

        era =
            (if rawDay >= 0 then
                rawDay
             else
                rawDay - 146096
            )
                // 146097

        dayOfEra =
            rawDay - era * 146097

        -- [0, 146096]
        yearOfEra =
            (dayOfEra - dayOfEra // 1460 + dayOfEra // 36524 - dayOfEra // 146096) // 365

        -- [0, 399]
        year =
            yearOfEra + era * 400

        dayOfYear =
            dayOfEra - (365 * yearOfEra + yearOfEra // 4 - yearOfEra // 100)

        -- [0, 365]
        mp =
            (5 * dayOfYear + 2) // 153

        -- [0, 11]
        month =
            mp
                + (if mp < 10 then
                    3
                   else
                    -9
                  )

        -- [1, 12]
    in
    { year =
        year
            + (if month <= 2 then
                1
               else
                0
              )
    , month = month
    , day = dayOfYear - (153 * mp + 2) // 5 + 1 -- [1, 31]
    }


flooredDiv : Int -> Float -> Int
flooredDiv numerator denominator =
    floor (toFloat numerator / denominator)



-- WEEKDAYS AND MONTHS


{-| Represents a `Weekday` so that you can convert it to a `String` or `Int`
however you please. For example, if you need the Japanese representation, you
can say:

    toJapaneseWeekday : Weekday -> String
    toJapaneseWeekday weekday =
        case weekday of
            Mon ->
                "月"

            Tue ->
                "火"

            Wed ->
                "水"

            Thu ->
                "木"

            Fri ->
                "金"

            Sat ->
                "土"

            Sun ->
                "日"

-}
type alias Weekday =
    Date.Day


{-| Represents a `Month` so that you can convert it to a `String` or `Int`
however you please. For example, if you need the Danish representation, you
can say:

    toDanishMonth : Month -> String
    toDanishMonth month =
        case month of
            Jan ->
                "januar"

            Feb ->
                "februar"

            Mar ->
                "marts"

            Apr ->
                "april"

            May ->
                "maj"

            Jun ->
                "juni"

            Jul ->
                "juli"

            Aug ->
                "august"

            Sep ->
                "september"

            Oct ->
                "oktober"

            Nov ->
                "november"

            Dec ->
                "december"

-}
type alias Month =
    Date.Month



-- SUBSCRIPTIONS


{-| Get the current time periodically. How often though? Well, you provide an
interval in milliseconds (like `1000` for a second or `60 * 1000` for a minute
or `60 * 60 * 1000` for an hour) and that is how often you get a new time!

Check out [this example](https://elm-lang.org/examples/time) to see how to use
it in an application.

**This function is not for animation.** Use the [`elm/animation-frame`][af]
package for that sort of thing! It syncs up with repaints and will end up
being much smoother for any moving visuals.

[af]: /packages/elm/animation-frame/latest

-}
every : Float -> (Posix -> msg) -> Sub msg
every interval tagger =
    Time.every interval (round >> millisToPosix >> tagger)



-- FOR PACKAGE AUTHORS


{-| **Intended for package authors.**

The documentation of [`here`](#here) explains that it has certain accuracy
limitations that block on adding new APIs to JavaScript. The `customZone`
function is a stopgap that takes:

1.  A default offset in minutes. So `Etc/GMT-5` is `customZone (-5 * 60) []`
    and `Etc/GMT+9` is `customZone (9 * 60) []`.
2.  A list of exceptions containing their `start` time in "minutes since the Unix
    epoch" and their `offset` in "minutes from UTC"

Human times will be based on the nearest `start`, falling back on the default
offset if the time is older than all of the exceptions.

When paired with `getZoneName`, this allows you to load the real IANA time zone
database however you want: HTTP, cache, hardcode, etc.

**Note:** If you use this, please share your work in an Elm community forum! I
am sure others would like to hear about it, and more experience reports will
help me and the any potential TC39 proposal.

-}
customZone : Int -> List { start : Int, offset : Int } -> Zone
customZone =
    Zone


{-| **Intended for package authors.**

Use `Intl.DateTimeFormat().resolvedOptions().timeZone` to try to get names
like `Europe/Moscow` or `America/Havana`. From there you can look it up in any
IANA data you loaded yourself.

-}
getZoneName : Task x ZoneName
getZoneName =
    Task.map (offsetFromUtc >> Offset) Date.now


{-| **Intended for package authors.**

The `getZoneName` function relies on a JavaScript API that is not supported
in all browsers yet, so it can return the following:

    -- in more recent browsers
    Name "Europe/Moscow"
    Name "America/Havana"

    -- in older browsers
    Offset 180
    Offset -300

So if the real info is not available, it will tell you the current UTC offset
in minutes, just like what `here` uses to make zones like `customZone -60 []`.

-}
type ZoneName
    = Name String
    | Offset Int